FAQs

FAQs

FAQ

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

1.What we need for armature winding machine quotation

In order to recommend suitable machine model and provide quotation according,we need armature drawing and winding diagram including wire diameter and turn number, and the requirement for the production capacity.

2.What we need for stator winding machine quotation

We need stator drawing, winding diagram including wire diameter and turn number. In order to work out the machine quantity, we should know the requirement for the production capacity.

3.What we need for commutator quotation

We need commutator drawing which mentioned the detailed size and material. If customer is not clear about the material, we could recommend suitable material according to the application. Also we need to know the required quantity per order.

4. What we need for armature balancing machine quotation

We have two types of balancing machine: Adding Weight and Weight Removing.For recommending suitable machine model, we need armature drawing, armature weight, the initial unbalance value, and acceptable residual unbalance value  & the required production capacity.

5.What the Comparison between DC and AC motor

DC motor has the advantage of quick react, bigger starting torque and provide rated torque between 0 and rated rotation speed, but its advantage is also its disadvantage, because DC motor need to generate constant torque under rated torque, it will need commutator and carbon brush. But commutator and carbon brush will cause spark and carbon powder during motor rotation,it will damage the motor components and has the limit of application.

AC motor has no carbon brush and commutator, no need maintainence, hard and been used widely. But it will need complicated controlling technology if need to achieve the similar performance with DC motor. There are two types of AC motor: asynchronous motorand synchronous motor. There are three types ofasynchronous motor as per the stator phase number: single phaseasynchronous motor, two phaseasynchronous motor and three phaseasynchronous motor. The structure of three phaseasynchronous motor is simple, reliable and lower cost.

6.What is the Working principle of brushless motor

DC brushless motor adopts electric commutating device instead of the traditional mechanical commutating device (commutator and carbon brush),it not only keep the good speed regulation and starting features of DC motor, but also has advantage of AC motor, such as simple structure and easy maintainence etc.

DC brushless motor has good and stable performance, so it developped quickly in recent years. The armature of traditional DC motor is rotatory,and magnetic pole is static, but DC brushless motor is on the contrary, magnetic pole is rotatory, armature is static, the commutating of armature winding can be achieved by position sensor and electric switch circuit.

Usually,DC brushless motor consists of motor,position sensor and electric switch. Electric motor consists of multi-phase(three phase,four phase,five phase ect.) armature winding and stator and permanent magnetic rotor with a certaina certain number of pole-pairs. AA,BB,CC stand for three phase stator winding, NS is permanent magnetic pole,it is motor's armature, PS is the armature position sensor which connects on the same shaft of motor aramture, BG1,BG2,BG3 is the power switch tube of electric switch circuit, three phase winding A.B.C are serial connected with BG1,BG2,BG3 respectively, then connect to the power source. Its action principle is: PS give a signal to control BG1,BG2,BG3 on and off,when power switch tube is on, there will be current go through the corresponding stator winding, and generate magnetic field, the magnetic field interact with magnetic pole of permanent rotor and generate torque to make motor armature rotate, as the position sensor is connected on the same shaft of motor, so its armature will rotate at same time and give signal to BG1,BG2,BG3 orderly to control the power switch tube on and off, so as to make the current in armaturecommutating orderly along with the armature position changing, and make the armature magnetic field rotate in stepping mode,thus motor armature will keep rotating continously.

7.What is the Classification of bearings

First. Classify according to the loading direction or nominal contact angle:

(1) Radial bearings---mainly used for radial direction loading, its nominal contact angle is between 0 and 45, as per the nominal contact angle, it can be divided to:radial contact bearing---the nominal contact angle is 0; and centripetal angle contact bearings--the nominal contact angle is between 0 and 45.

(2) Thrust bearings---mainly used for axial direction loading, its nominal contact angle is between 45 and 90. And as per the nominal contact angle, it can be divided to: axial contact bearings--nominal contact angle is 90; and thrust angle contact bearings---nominal contact angle is between 45 and 90.

Second. Classify according to rolling body:

1). Ball bearing---the rolling body is balls;

2). Roller bearing---the rolling body is roller. As per the roller type, it can be divided into: cylindrical roller bearing----roller body is cylindrical roller, length of cylindrical roller/diameter is less or equal to 3; And needle bearings--- roller body is needle.

Third. Classify according to self-aligning or not:

1). Self-aligning bearing---roller path is self-aligning, canadapt to the angle difference and angle movement of two roller path's axis;

2). Non self-aligning bearings(rigid bearings)---can prevent the angle offset of axis of two roller paths.

Fourth. Classify according to the row number of roller body:

1). Single row bearings---has single row roller body;

2). Double row bearings---has two rows of roller body;

3) Multi-row bearings---has multi-row of roller body;

Fifth. Classify according to whether the bearing components can be separated:

1). Separatable bearings---has separatable components;

2). Inseparatable bearings---bearing rings can not be separated after assembling well;

Sixth. Classify according to bearing size (outer diameter):

(1). Micro bearings--- Nominal O.D is smaller than 26mm;

(2). Small bearings--- Nominal O.D is 28~55mm;

(3). Small and medium bearings--- Nominal O.D is 60~115mm;

(4). Medium and large bearings--- Nominal O.D is 120~190mm;

(5). Large bearings--- Nominal O.D is 200~430mm;

(6). Outside bearings--- Nominal O.D is bigger than 440mm.

8.What is deep groove ball bearing?

Ball bearings, also known as anti-friction bearings, are small metallic or ceramic spheres used to reduce friction between shafts and axles in a number of applications. Ball bearings are often used in a series to absorb the weight placed on a moving part, or in individual cages to reduce friction in axle assemblies. Most are manufactured to meet very exacting standards of roundness, since any deformation can cause the moving parts to fail unexpectedly.

The concept of ball bearings can be traced all the way back to the Roman Empire, but many sources credit Leonardo da Vinci with the first practical designs. It wasn't until 1791, however, when an Welsh carriage maker and inventor named Philip Vaughan patented the first axle assembly to use them. Previous carriage axles would eventually wear out from the effects of friction, but Vaughan's use of ball bearings eliminated the direct contact between the drive shaft and axle.

Following their early use in drive shafts, factory engineers found other applications in the manufacturing arena. Individual parts could be moved easily over ramps equipped with these bearings. Motor-driven machines became more efficient as they reduced friction between parts. Unlike other types of bearings, ball bearings allow for both rotary and axial movement, which added versatility to machine design.

One of the most common examples of ball bearings in action is the roller skate. Four wheels are attached to two axles on the bottom of a boot. A closer inspection of these wheels reveals a collection of small metal balls that surround the axle. As the skater places his or her full weight on the wheels, each ball absorbs the load temporarily. As the skater pushes forward, they roll in a track around the axle. Because the ball bearings are perfectly round and smooth, there is very little friction generated between them. They allow the skater to move in a straight line with little resistance.

Manufacturing ball bearings is surprisingly similar to forming balls of dough. A supply of metal wire approximately the same diameter as the bearings is placed in a machine with two plates designed as hemispheres. When the two halves are brought together forcefully, a rough metal ball is formed. The problem is, some additional metal shards called flashing still remain. The balls are then placed in another machine that removes the flashing to create a perfect state of roundness.

This second machine consists of two grooved plates, one with an open notch to receive the ball bearings. As this machine fills with unfinished balls, the upper grooved plate begins to twist in different directions over the immovable bottom plate. This action is similar to a cook using his or her hands to form balls of dough. The first run through this machine removes the flashing and helps the bearings become fairly uniform in size.

A second run through the same machine adds a lubricating liquid and abrasives to the mix. The ball bearings are ground down to a precise size by the action of the abrasives. Once the balls have reached an acceptable size and uniformity, a third run uses a polishing agent to give them a friction-reducing shine. All of the bearings are given one final inspection to check for imperfections before they are approved for use in other applications

9.How do the commutator and carbon brush work?

A single commutator bar is a piece of copper connected to one end of an armature coil. Two commutator bars for each coil, are attached to opposite sides of the shaft.Electrical connection is made by pressing carbon brushes against the commutator bars, this allows the shaft to rotate while making electrical connections when the copper bars are in contatct with a carbon brush.

Two carbon brushes are used , one positive and the other negative polarity. At some point in the rotation of the shaft the copper bars that are attached to the coil are in a position such that each copper bar is under one of the carbon brushes. A positve brush electrically connects to a copper bar on the commutator and electricity flows from the positive power supply through the carbon brush and into the copper bar that is underneth it. Power continues to flow from the copper bar via the wire connected to is and into the coil. At the other end of the coil the power leaves passes through a wire and the other copper bar and returns to the negatve power supply connection via the negative brush completing the electrical connection.

As the shaft rotates the copper bars move underneth the brushes to establish an electrical connection and as the rotation continues this electrical connection breaks as the copper bars move out from being underneth. As the shaft continues to rotate the copper bars again come in to contact with the brushes and re-establish an electrical connection. But now these copper bars are connecting to the opposite polarity brushes since the shaft at this point has only revolved 1/2 of a turn.

Look at it another way lets label the copper bars A & B and the Carbon Brushes POS & NEG. Initally the "A" copper bar is connected to the POS brush and B to the NEG brush. The shaft revolves 1/4 turn and no electrical connect is made as the "A" copper bar is inbetween the POS & NEG brushes (as is the B bar as well). The shaft continues to move due to its momentium and the "A" copper bar approaches the NEG brush as the shaft continues to revolve and eventually establishes electrical contact. At the same time the B copper bar is making contact with the POS brush.

10.What is the Variety of winding machine?

Normally,the winding machine proceeed copper wire,aluminium wire,solder wire etc.

As per the winding machine's application,there are two type of winding machine:general type and dedicated type.

General type--suitable for winding several kinds of products,only need to change tooling.

Dedicated type--only suitable for winding one specific product.

The common dedicated type winiding machine are as following:

Transformer:

1. Special for square transformer--(thick wire and thin wire.)

2. Special for ring transformer--(big ring,middle ring and small ring)

3. Other types of transformer.

Motor coil:

1. Special for fan motor--(tabel fan,ceiling fan,box fan);

2. Special for micro toy motor--(flyer type,special winding head type);

3. Special for series type armature coil;

4. Speicial for fractional motor and big horsepower motor.

Inductance coil:

1. Special for intermediate frequence and colour code inductance;

2. Special for small magnet ring inductance coil;

3. Special for loudspeaker box frequency division coil ;

4. Special for fluorescent lamp barretter.

Other loudspeaker voice coil:

1. Special for loudspeaker voice coil;

2. Special for electric heating tube;

11.What are the classification of winding machine.

Fully automatic type:

It is a high automation machine consists of motor,electric components,pneumatic components,transmission mechanism,sensor,control system etc..Usually,it can achieve automatic winding,wire cutting,load and unload workpiece. Operator only need to make sure the raw material is enough,and change workpiece or copper wire timely.One operator can take care several machines.

Advantage: Operator no need training,high production efficiency, even product quality,can continously work for a long time.

Disadvantage: Price is higher than semi-auto machine,and need professional technician to assure the machine running,maintainence is a little troublesome,and difficult to change product type.

Suitable for mass prodution of one single production type.

Semi-automatic type:

The most widely used in China,only could achieve automatic winding.Convenient to change tooling to produce diffierent product.

Advantage:Price is cheaper,operator can complete some technology which can not be achieved by machine,convenient to change production type.

Disadvantage:need more human labor,and operator need to be trained.

Suitable for low cost production,new products and several types of produsts with lower output.

According to the winding mode,it can be classified into: coil winding machine,flyer type winding machin,three-dimensional winding machine.

Coil winding machine:

Spindle rotates,coordinate with three dimensional space moving and positioning to make the wire array on te workpiece surface.Usually used for transformer,inductor and various of coils.

Flyer type winding mahcine:

Adopt motors to drive the flyer to winding.Usually used for armture winding.

Three dimensional winding machine:

Suitable for special winding mode of speicial products.Usually used for winding stator and special products.

12.What is induction motor?

One of the most common electrical motorused in most applications which is known as induction motor. This motor is also called as asynchronous motor because it runs at a speed less than synchronous speed. In this, we need to define what is synchronous speed. Synchronous speed is the speed of rotation of the magnetic fieldin a rotary machine and it depends upon the frequency and number poles of the machine. An induction motor always runs at a speed less than synchronous speed because the rotating magnetic field which is produced in the stator will generate flux in the rotor which will make the rotor to rotate, but due to the lagging of flux electric current in the rotor with flux electric current in the stator, the rotor will never reach to its rotatingmagnetic field speed i.e. the synchronous speed. There are basically two types of induction motor that depend upon the input supply - single phase induction motor and three phase induction motor. Single phase induction motor is not a self starting motor and three phase induction motor is a self-starting motor. Now in general we need to give two supply i.e. double excitation to make a machine to rotate. For example if we consider a DC motor, we will give one supply to the stator and another to the rotor through brush arrangement.

13.What is the Working Principle of Induction Motor?

But in induction motor we give only one supply, so it is really interesting to know that how it works. It is very simple, from the name itself we can understand that there is induction process occurred. Actually when we are giving the supply to the stator winding, flux will generate in the coil due to flow of electric current in the coil. Now the rotor winding is arranged in such a way that it becomes short circuited in the rotor itself. The flux from the stator will cut the coil in the rotor and since the rotor coils are short circuited, according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, electric currentwill start flowing in the coil of the rotor. When the electric current will flow, another flux will get generated in the rotor. Now there will be two flux, one is stator flux and another is rotor flux and the rotor flux will be lagging to the stator flux. Due to this, the rotor will feel a torque which will make the rotor to rotate in the direction of rotating magnetic flux. So the speed of the rotor will be depending upon the ac supply and the speed can be controlled by varying the input supply. This is the working principle of an induction motor of either type.

14.Why is Three Phase Induction Motor Self Starting?

In three phase system, there are three single phase line with 120° phase difference. So the rotating magnetic field is having the same phase difference which will make the rotor to move. If we consider three phases a, b and c, when phase a is magnetized, the rotor will move towards the phase a winding, in the next moment phase b will get magnetized and it will attract the rotor and than phase c. So the rotor will continue to rotate.

15.Why Single Phase Induction Motor is not Self Starting?

Before that we need to know why single phase induction motor is not a self starting motor and how the problem is overcome. We know that the ac supply is a sinusoidal wave and it produces pulsating magnetic field in uniformly distributed stator winding. Since pulsatingmagnetic field can be assumed as two oppositely rotating magnetic fields, there will be no resultant torque produced at the starting and due to this the motor does not run. After giving the supply, if the rotor is made to rotate in either direction by external force, then the motor will start to run. This problem has been solved by making the stator winding into two winding, one is main winding and another is auxiliary winding and a capacitor is fixed in series with the auxiliary winding. This will make a phase difference when current will flow through the both coils. When there will be phase difference, the rotor will generate a starting torque and it will start to rotate. Practically we can see that the fan does not rotate when the capacitor is disconnected from the motor but if we rotate with hand it will start to rotate. So this is the reason of using capacitor in the single phase induction motor. There are several advantages of induction motor which makes this motor to have wider application. It is having good efficiency up to 97%. But the speed of the motor varies with the load given to the motor which is an disadvantage of this motor. The direction of rotation of induction motor can easily be changed by changing the sequence of three phase supply, i.e. if RYB is in forward direction, the RBY will make the motor to rotate in reverse direction. This is in the case of three phase motor but in single phase motor, the direction can be reversed by reversing thecapacitor terminals in the winding.

16.What is the Advantages and classification of Single phase motor

For lightning and general purposes in homes, offices, shops, small factories single phase system is widely used as compared to three phase system as the single phase system is more economical and the power requirement in most of the houses, shops, offices are small, which can be easily met by single phase system. The single phase motors are simple in construction, cheap in cost, reliable and easy to repair and maintain. Due to all these advantages the single phase motor finds its application in vacuum cleaner, fans, washing machine, centrifugal pump, blowers, washing machine, small toys etc.

The single phase ac motors are further classified as:

1.Single phase induction motors or asynchronous motors.

2.Single phase synchronous motors.

3.Commutator motors.

 

17.What are the Types of three phase induction motor

Induction motor is also called asynchronous motor as it runs at a different speed with the synchronous speed. Like any other electrical motor, induction motor have two main parts namely rotor and stator.

Rotor:

The rotor is a rotating part of induction motor. The rotor is connected to the mechanical load through the shaft. The rotor of the three phase induction motor are further classified as-

Squirrel cage rotor,

Slip ring rotor or wound rotor or phase wound rotor.

Depending upon the type of rotor used the three phase induction motor are classified as-

Squirrel cage induction motor

Slip ring induction motor or wound induction motor or phase wound induction motor

Stator:

As its name indicate stator is a stationary part of induction motor. A three phase supply is given to the stator of induction motor.

18.What is the work principle of NIDE ND- LAW-5B2 armature winding amchine

ND- LAW-5B2 rotor winding machine adopts 2 winding headers to drive, so the structure is very simple. The winding servo motor transfer the force to the main shaft and the two winding boxes are fixed under the table, the slide boxes are linked to the bottom box by 4 liner bearing, the front and back motion of the slide box is driven by 2 cylinders. The big travel is for mould close while the small travel for quickly change mould.

19.What is the Work principle of NIDE manual winding machine

1.This winding machine adapts double flyers structure, 1set 1KW servo motor drive the two flyers rotation, and 400W indexing servo motor. During working, the armature is clamped tightly by two nos winding tooling and clamping device. When flyers are running, wire goes through the wire holder, tension device then enters hollow spindle, comes out from wire sliding wheel, then the wire slides into the armature slot through flyer wire guiding wheel. After this step, put armature into the slot to do winding.

2.This machine adapts servo system to do winding. Meanwhile, machine action is controlled by true color human-machine PLC controller; armature indexing is controlled by big power stepping motor; servo speed is controlled by double flyers rotation speed. Moreover, this machine has other functions, such as slow increasing speed when starting, Max. speed limit, brake time, CW &CCW rotation, counting pre-set, etc. With complete function and reliable running, this machine is convenient for operation.

3.The machine fixture is controlled by pneumatic cylinder, high performance with low cost. It's equipped with working plate, to operating more convenient.

4.The machine adapts PLC system pulse counting signal, whose correctness is 100%

20.BLDC motor working principle

Brushless DC motors use semiconductor switching devices to achieve electronic commutation, that is, electronic switching devices replace traditional contact commutators and brushes. It has the advantages of high reliability, no commutation sparks, low mechanical noise, etc. It is widely used in high-grade recording seats, video recorders, electronic instruments and automation office equipment.

 

Brushless DC motors consist of permanent magnet rotors, multipole winding stators, and position sensors. Position sensing changes the current of the stator windings in a certain order according to the change of the rotor position (that is, the position of the rotor pole relative to the stator winding is detected, and the position sensing signal is generated at the determined position, and is processed by the signal conversion circuit. To control the power switch circuit, according to a certain logic relationship winding current switching). The operating voltage of the stator winding is provided by an electronic switch circuit controlled by the position sensor output.

 

Position sensors are magnetic, photoelectric and electromagnetic types.

 

A brushless DC motor using a magnetically sensitive position sensor has a magnetic sensor element (such as a Hall element, a magneto-sensitive diode, a magnetically-sensitive diode, a magneto-resistor, or an application-specific integrated circuit) mounted on a stator assembly. To detect changes in the magnetic field generated by permanent magnets and rotors.

 

A brushless DC motor adopting a photoelectric position sensor has a photoelectric sensor arranged on a stator assembly at a certain position. A shading plate is mounted on the rotor, and the light source is a light emitting diode or a small light bulb. When the rotor rotates, due to the action of the shading plate, the photosensitive components on the stator will generate pulse signals intermittently at a certain frequency.

 

Brushless DC motors with electromagnetic position sensors are equipped with electromagnetic sensor components (such as coupling transformers, proximity switches, LC resonant circuits, etc.) on the stator assembly. When the position of the permanent magnet rotor changes, the electromagnetic effect will make the electromagnetic sensor. Generates a high frequency modulated signal (its amplitude varies with rotor position).

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